Photo: Frances L. Clalin. (Library of Congress)


The combat exclusion policy contributes to a military culture where women are considered as second-class members of the service. This sex discrimination leads to a hostile workplace for women and tolerance for sexual harassment, assault and rape.
One of the biggest dangers women in the military face is sexual attacks from male members of their own service. In 2011 there were 3,192 reported cases of sexual assault (the number unreported cases is unknown).

Kathy Johnson’s article: Women in Combat: History and Future

(Historical narrative coming soon)